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Relative clauses replaced by participle

Replacing a Relative Clause by a Participle Construction Replace the Relative Clause by a Participle Construction while keeping the rest of the sentence unchanged. (The first sentence is given as an example.) The boy who was waiting in the hall expected a phone call As you can see, the participle construction on the right replaces [ersetzen] the relative clause construction on the left. The meaning of both constructions is the same. Participle constructions are especially common in written English. They sound more formal [förmlich] than relative clauses Exercise: Participle constructions to replace relative clauses and adverbial clauses Rewrite the following sentences using participle constructions.What's special about the last sentence? The pupil who was sitting next to me looked really stressed Participles instead of relative clauses - The girl waiting at the bus stop is my sister..who is waiting - Many of the people living here are Asians.. who live here Translation: relative clause (in German) 2. Related participle constructions (Verbundene Partizipialkonstruktionen - vergleichbare Nebensätze haben dasselbe Subjekt wie der Hauptsatz)) Participle constructions to replace.

Replacing a Relative Clause by a Participle Constructio

Participle Clauses. Reduced Relative Clauses (Download this page in PDF here.) (Click here for information about participle adjectives.) We can use participle clauses after a noun in the same way as relative clauses. This gives more information about the noun. We sometimes call this a 'reduced relative clause'. 1: A present participle (verb + ing) can be used in the same way as an active. Participle clauses use a present participle or a past participle to shorten a dependent clause. Participle clauses are very common in written English. They allow us to include information without making long or complicated sentences. Learn how to use participle clauses in English grammar with Lingolia's grammar rules and test your skills in the exercises

Participles, Participle constructions. 1. Use. to shorten relative clauses; to make one sentence out of two; after verbs of ›perception‹ (e.g. see, watch, hear, listen to, smell, feel) after verbs of ›rest‹ and ›movement‹ (e.g. run, go, come, stay, stand, lie, sit) after the verb have ; instead of a subordinate clause; 2. Form. Present participle: an excit ing race; Past participle. Was sind Participle Clauses (Partizipialsätze) und wie werden sie verwendet (Erklärung)? In der englischen Sprache dienen Participle Clauses (auf Deutsch: Partizipialsätze) dazu, Sätze und oder Teilsätze miteinander zu verbinden oder Sätze oder Teilsätze zu verkürzen.Dabei kann das Past Participle oder auch das Present Participle verwendet werden

A good way of practicing how to use participles would be to go through some of your own texts and see if there are any clauses which you could replace by a participle construction. Do you think the new version is in any way preferable to the original version? 2. Defining und non-defining relative clause Participle clauses after conjunctions and prepositions It is also common for participle clauses, especially with -ing, to follow conjunctions and prepositions such as before, after, instead of, on, since, when, while and in spite of. Before cooking, you should wash your hands Participle clauses replacing a relative clause A present participle clause can replace an active voice finite relative clause. The noun before the participle is the doer of the action: The man driving the car was not injured

Participle constructions instead of relative clauses [herr

If the relative clause is in the passive voice and in a simple tense, then it can be reduced by deleting the relative pronoun and the verb ' to be ', leaving you with the past participle. If it is a negative, then you place ' not ' at the beginning of the participle phrase Reduced Relative Clauses ( Rút gọn mệnh đề quan hệ) Cập nhật lúc: 14:03 26-12-2016 Mục tin: Ngữ Pháp (Grammar) Các trường hợp đặc biệt và nâng cao của mệnh đề quan hệ bao gồm rút gọn Ving, Ved, to Vo, lược bỏ đại từ quan hệ và các bước làm bài chi tiết, cụ thể và dễ hiểu Past participle clauses usually replace a sentence with a verb in the passive voice. Found in a litter bin, Note that these participle clauses can often be replaced by a relative clause: The briefcase, which was found in a litter bin, contained classified information. John, who was impressed by the painting, praised the artist. The company, which was founded 20 years ago, has received many. Übung zum Present Participle. Sätze kürzen mit Partizipialkonstruktionen (Mix) Kürze bzw. verbinde die folgenden Sätze mithilfe von Partizipialkonstruktionen (Present Participle oder Past Participle). The boy who carried a blue parcel crossed the street. The battle was fought at this place. The battle was very significant. She lay in her bed and wept bitter tears. The books which were. A participle can often be used instead of a relative pronoun and full verb. Read the sentence given below. The girl who sits next to Peter is my neighbor's daughter. Now when we shorten the relative clause 'who sits next to Peter', we get

Exercise: Participle constructions to replace relative

Past Participle Clauses replacing Relative Clauses. Present participle clauses can replace an active voice finite relative clause. The noun before the participle is the doer of the action; The man driving the car was not injured. (The man who was driving the car was not injured.) Present participle clauses can also replace state verbs in relative clauses; If you receive an e-mail containing a. A participle clause contains either a present participle, e.g. seeing,a past participle, e.g. seen, or a perfect participle, e.g. having seen. TIME CLAUSES. A) to replace a time clause to show that an action took place while another was already in progress. Walking down the street on Saturday, I saw Simon. (replaces As/ When/ While I was walking) B) to replace a time clause to indicate that. Note: In non-defining relative clauses, who/which may not be replaced with that. Object pronouns in non-defining relative clauses must be used. Jim, who/whom we met yesterday, is very nice. How to Shorten Relative Clauses? Level: intermediate. Relative clauses with who, which, that as subject pronoun can be replaced with a participle. This. A to -infinitive clause can replace a defining relative clause after ordinal numbers (the first, the second etc.), after superlatives (the best, the most beautiful etc.) and after next, last and only: Ethan is usually the last person to understand the joke. (Ethan is usually the last person who understands the joke.

Verwende das Past Participle. I have a cat that is called Tari. → The letter was sent on Tuesday and arrived on Friday. → He was accused of murder and arrested. → She was shocked by the bad news and burst into tears. → The event is organised by our team and will surely be a great success. → The film is based on real events and tells the story of a reporter. → She was born in. The difference here is that those reduced relative verbs ending in -ing (looked at above) stand in for active verbs, while the past participles replace passive verbs and, as with the former type, they can replace almost any tense participle-training-ws.doc participle-training-ws.pdf Das Arbeitsblatt enthält 24 Übunggsätze zum Present- und Past Participle sowie ein Lösungsblatt. Es werden verschiedene Participle-Konstruktionen trainiert: present & past participle instead of a relative clause present & past participle instead of adverbial clause of time or reason present participle plus object after verbs of. We can sometimes replace a relative pronoun and finite verb with an infinitive. This is sometimes called a relative infinitive clause, or infinitival relative clause. This happens more often with defining relative clauses, but can also occur with non-defining clauses: The first person to speak at the conference was an expert on (= the first person who spoke) Jenny is definitely. Reduced relative clauses explained, with examples and step by step instructions for through reducing relative clauses to modified nouns

Reduced relative clauses are participle clauses which follow a noun. They are like relative clauses, but with the relative pronoun and auxiliary verb (if there is one) left out. Because they modify nouns, (reduced) relative clauses are occasionally referred to as adjective clauses. Reduced relative clauses are used most often instead of defining relative clauses, which are what we'll be mainly. Partizipien, Partizipialkonstruktionen - Einsetzübung - Englisch lernen. Aufgaben-Nr. 2518Setze das Verb in Klammern als Partizip Präsens (present participle) oder als Partizip Perfekt (past participle) in die Lücken ein.. Beispiel aufklappe

PPT - Finite Clauses PowerPoint Presentation, free

In the sentences above, the relative pronoun (who, which, that) can be omitted along with the verb to be and replaced by the present participle (-ing). Notice that the simple present verb tense changes to the present participle. In 1b, the verb in the clause expresses a habitual or continuous action, something that happens on a regular basis (Reduced Relative Clauses) Review participle clauses here. Download this quiz in PDF here. Need more practice? Get more Perfect English Grammar with our courses. Welcome to Perfect English Grammar! Welcome! I'm Seonaid and I hope you like the website. Please contact me if you have any questions or comments..

Relative clause replaced by participles and to infinitive RELATIVE CLAUSE REPLACED BY PARTICIPLES AND TO INFINITIVE. (Mệnh đề quan hệ thay thế bởi phân từ và động từ nguyên mẫu) A. Relative clauses replaced/ reduced by participles (mệnh đề hệ được thay thế /rút gọn bằng phân từ We can use participle clauses after a noun in the same way as relative clauses. This gives more information about the noun. We sometimes call this a 'reduced relative clause'. 1: A present participle (verb + ing) can be used in the same way as an active relative clause: The man driving the car is a friend of mine. (= The man who is driving the car is a friend of mine). The present participle. We can only use a participle phrase to replace a defining relative clause if the subject of the main clause and the relative clause is the same We cannot use a participle phrase if there is another subject between the relative pronoun and the verb: X The house living in is over a century old. The house which we live in is over a century old. X The man engaged to has disappeared. The man who. Assuming I am writing a formal letter/essay for CAE exam, should I use reduced relative clauses and participle clauses? I mean, are they formal? (Having been) Proved by scientists leading(who are leading) an international group of experts in biology, global warming is rising quickly. ( examples for participle clause at the beginning + reduced relative clause) In order to be very very formal.

GRAMMAR SECTION: PARTICIPLE CLAUSES . Another type of clause in English is the participle clause. This is a clause using the present participle (-ing) or the past participle (-ed). It is the most complex sentence in English. We can also make a Perfect Participle using Having + past participle. We use Participle clauses: After prepositions (present and perfect participles) a) After visiting my. This video is unavailable. Watch Queue Queue. Watch Queue Queu

Participle Clauses 1 - Perfect English Gramma

  1. Relative Clauses And Participles? Forums Grammar & Sentence Structure 0 1,956 + 0. I know that you can use the present or past participle to replace/shorten a relative clause when the relative pronoun is the subject of the relative clause. He looked at the books that lay on the table => He looked at the books lying on the table. Is this always possible or are there more rules? For example: The.
  2. Exercise 3: Use reduced relative clauses in place of the relative clauses 1. We had a river in which we could swim. 2. Here are some accounts that you must check. 3. The last student that was interviewed was Tom. 4. We visited Hanoi, which is the capital of VN. 5. My father, who is a pilot, often goes abroad. 6. I was the only one who realized.
  3. e him closely. Ich verstehe nicht was ich bei beiden Aufgaben anders machen soll :(
  4. Participle Clauses Exercise Rewrite the sentences with participle clauses. 1. Sam left school early because he felt sick. 2. The teacher was impressed by Daniel's work, so she gave him the highest mark. 3. Because he didn't study hard enough for his exam, Ryan couldn't pass it. 4. As I haven't received all the applications yet, I am not.
  5. EXERCISE 2Replace the participle constructions with relative clauses. Tipp: Hier musst du zunächst entscheiden, welches Relativpronomen du brauchst -who für Menschen oder which für Dinge. Dann musst du das Partizip in ein Vollverb im Aktiv (singing -> sings / sang / is singing ) oder Passiv (opened -> is opened, was opened ) verwandeln

Participle Clauses in English Gramma

  1. Defining relative clauses give us essential information - information that tells us who or what we are talking about. The woman who lives next door works in a bank. These are the flights that have been cancelled. We usually use a relative pronoun or adverb to start a defining relative clause: who, which, that, when, where or whose. who/that. We can use who or that to talk about people. that.
  2. ones, often involving participles: (30) The tree, which had been knocked down by the wind, had to be replaced. (31) The tree, knocked down by the wind, had to be replaced. Participial relative clauses normally involve gapping. The gapped element is normally the subject of the participle. All languages have fewer voice distinc-tions among participles than among finite forms, so the finite.
  3. ation, writing complex sentences plays a very important role, and you also have the knowledge of using these complex sentences in the right places
  4. A participial clause, starting with -ed or past participle, is used instead of a relative pronoun plus passive voice. Study these further examples: Food sold (= which is sold) in this.

When the relative clause contains a present or past participle and the auxiliary verb to be. In such cases both relative pronoun and auxiliary can be left out: Who's that man (who is) standing by the gate? The family (that is) living in the next house comes from Slovenia A relative clause is one kind of dependent clause. It has a subject and verb, but can't stand alone as a sentence. It is sometimes called an adjective clause because it functions like an adjective—it gives more information about a noun. A relative clause always begins with a relative pronoun, which substitutes for a noun, a noun phrase, or a pronoun when sentences are combined. A to-infinitive clause can replace a defining relative clause after ordinal numbers (the first, the second etc.), after superlatives (the best, the most beautiful etc.) and after next, last and only:. Ethan is usually the last person to understand the joke. (Ethan is usually the last person who understands the joke.) His office was the next room to clean A bound relative clause, the type most often considered, He is the policeman to whom I talked); but in informal usage whom is often replaced by who. In English, as in some other languages (such as French; see below), non-restrictive relative clauses are set off with commas, but restrictive ones are not: I met a man and a woman yesterday. The woman, who had a thick French accent, was. Reducing relative clauses is difficult to understand. Review the rules on relative clauses and you'll be able to do this as well. It takes lots of practice, so make sure to write down what you learn as you learn online. It will help you learn the forms

The key difference between relative clause and subordinate clause is that the relative clause begins with a relative pronoun whereas the subordinate clause begins with a subordinating conjunction or a relative pronoun.. First of all, a clause is a group of words that contain a subject and a predicate.There are two types of clauses namely independent clauses and dependent clauses Participial relative clause. A construction which resembles a relative clause but which contains a participle instead of a finite verb. Anyone touching that wire will get a shock. Half of the people invited to the party didn't turn up. Who is the girl dancing with your brother? Participial clauses can be replaced by relative clauses In English, post-modifying -ingparticiples can only be replaced by full relative clauses in which the relative pronoun functions as the subject of the finite verb. In sentence (6a) the participial clause can be replaced by a sentential relative clause introduced by the subject pronoun who: (10) The person who writes reports is my colleague Relative clauses are essential for every student, no matter the level they are studying for. So whether you're teaching them the basics or the finer points, have a look at my guide to make sure you know the answer to every question you're asked! Pronouns Which / That* for things Who / Who Relative Clause. This is a clause that generally modifies a noun or a noun phrase and is often introduced by a relative pronoun (which, that, who, whom, whose).A relative clause connects ideas by using pronouns that relate to something previously mentioned and allows the writer to combine two independent clauses into one sentence. A relative clause is also known as an adjective clause

Participles, Participle constructions in Englis

Present Participle Past Participle Perfect Participle; work [arbeiten]|regelmäßiges Verb: Grundform + ing/ed go [gehen]|regelmäßiges Present Participle|unregelmäßige Vergangenheitsform (go-went-gone), für Past/Perfect Participle brauchen wir die 3. Form: come [kommen]|ein e am Wortende entfällt beim Anhängen von ing|unregelmäßiges Verb (come-came-come), für Past/Perfect Participle. Start studying The present and the past participle - Replace a Relative Clause by a Participle Construction. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools Relative pronouns - English Grammar Today - a reference to written and spoken English grammar and usage - Cambridge Dictionar Postmodification by -ed participle clauses (2) usually restrictive (→-ing) the antecedent head corresponds to the implicit subject of the nonfinite clause (→-ing) unlike -ing participle clauses (which are linked with the active voice), -ed participle constructions are in connection with the passive voice e.g.: The train which arrived at platform 1 is from York participles as adjectives and participles replacing relative clauses worksheet . Participle worksheets: FUNNY PAST PARTICIPLES - COLOUR, BLACK AND WHITE VERSION AND ANSWER KEY Level: elementary Age: 10-14 Downloads: 872 Past Participles 1 Level: intermediate Age: 13-14 Downloads: 564 Should have + participle ***fully editable Level: advanced Age: 14-17 Downloads: 547-ING or -ED???? Level.

Verwendung englischer Participle Clauses (Partizipialsätze

Reduce relative clauses. 1. A reduced relative clause replaces a defining relative clause. We use an -ing form or a past participle to replace the RELATIVE PRONOUN and VERB. 2. we use an -ing form to replace ---> active verbs of any tense. we used a past participle to replace --> passive voice ( verb of any tense). for instance Non-defining relative clauses are composed of a relative pronoun, a verb, and optional other elements such as the subject or object of the verb. Commas or parentheses are always used to separate non-defining relative clauses from the rest of the sentence. Examples. John's mother, who lives in Scotland, has 6 grandchildren. My friend John, who went to the same school as me, has just written a. Practice: Exercise 1: Replace the Relative Clause by a Participle or to infinitive while keeping the rest of the sentence unchanged 1. My roommate, who is afraid of computers, has never been on the Internet My roommate, being afraid of computers, has never been on the Internet 2. A lot of people who work in my office suffer from techno stress A lot of people working in my office suffer from. In diesem Text erfährst du, was genau ein Partizip ist und wie du Partizipialkonstruktionen (Participle Constructions) im Englischen verwenden kannst.Wenn du mit Participle Constructions einmal vertraut geworden bist, wird dir diese elegante Ausdrucksmöglichkeit schnell in Fleisch und Blut übergehen, weil sie viele Vorteile bringt. Natürlich musst du dann aufpassen, dass du es damit nicht. RELATIVE CLAUSES REPLACED BY PARTICIPLES AND TO-INFINITIVE 1. Relative clauses replaced by participles (present and past participles) a. Present participles (Hiện tại phân từ): được dùng khi động từ trong mệnh đề quan hệ ở dạng chủ động. Ex: a. The boy who is playing the piano is Ben. ( The boy playing the piano is Ben. b. We have a house which overlooks the.

Video: Partizip im Englischen: Erklärung und Übunge

Participle clauses Grammar - Intermediate to upper

Note: In non-defining relative clauses, who/which may not be replaced with that. Object pronouns in non-defining relative clauses must be used. Jim, who/whom we met yesterday, is very nice. How to Shorten Relative Clauses? Relative clauses with who, which, that as subject pronoun can be replaced with a participle. This makes the sentence. Here the relative clause is non-defining - in this situation it is obvious which man you mean. Do you know the man, who is talking to Peter? Non-defining Clauses are put in commas. Object pronounsin non-defining clauses must be used. Roy, who/whom I visited yesterday, is very generous. The relative pronoun that cannot be used in non-defining relative clauses (we can use who/which). 6. How to. Participle - Present, Past or Perfect Replace the relative clause by a participle construction. Lerngebiet: Participles Sentences Verbs: 5.Lernjahr (B1) 6.Lernjahr (B1, B2) 7.Lernjahr (B2) 8.Lernjahr (B2, C1) Interaktive Textübung Fokus: Grammatik (außer Zeit) Zeiten und Modi: Zur Übung Englisch Nachhilfe: Participle - Present, Past or Perfect Break up the participle construction. Relative Clauses replaced by Participles and To Infinitives (Revision) Thông qua bài giảng, học sinh được ôn tập lại kiến thức về mệnh đề quan hệ và biết cách rút gọn mệnh đề quan hệ bằng cách sử dụng phân từ (hiện tại và quá khứ) và động từ nguyên mẫu để áp dụng làm bài tập cũng như sử dụng trong giao tiếp.

Prepared by Nguyeãn Thò Ngoïc Traân RELATIVE CLAUSES REPLACED BY PARTICIPLES AND TO-INFINITIVES I. Reduce the following relative clauses, using Participle Phrases: 1. The man who teaches my son is my friend. -> 2 The ing-participle serves to connect clauses or parts of sentences with the same subject: Tony left without saying anything. Tony left and didn't say anything. (Two clauses are joined by the conjunction 'and'.) Tony left. She didn't say anything. (two separate sentences) It is also possible to shorten relative clauses in which the relative pronoun is omitted: The.

Mệnh đề quan hệ (Relative clauses) là một chủ điểm kiến thức ngữ pháp quan trọng các bạn cần nắm vững trong tiếng Anh. Bài Thi TOEIC thường ra đề trong một số chủ điểm sau: phân biệt cách sử dụng giữa that và which cũng như that và what. Bên cạnh đó, dạng mệnh đề quan hệ rút gọn cũng là. Participle clauses replacing a relative clause. A present participle clause can replace an active voice finite relative clause. The noun before the participle is the doer of the action: The man driving the car was not injured. (The man who was driving the car was not injured.) Present participle clauses are possible even with verbs which are not normally used in the continuous form (state.

Participle clauses Grammarin

Replace the adverbial clause or the relative clause by using a participle construction. Do not change the meaning of the sentence. The National Trust cares for over 700 miles of coastline in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. It is responsible for nearly 10 per cent of the total British coast. The National Trust which looks after lighthouses, harbours, and past military and archaeological. Übungsaufgaben & Lernvideos zum ganzen Thema. Mit Spaß & ohne Stress zum Erfolg. Die Online-Lernhilfe passend zum Schulstoff - schnell & einfach kostenlos ausprobieren a PRESENT PARTICIPLE instead of a Relative Clause in the ACTIVE VOICE Ex: The girl who is typing the letters is new here. (relative) => The girl typing the letters is new here. (participle) a PAST PARTICIPLE for a Relative Clause in the PASSIVE VOIC

Reduced Relative Clauses - Past and Present Participles

I was taught that participles can replace relative clauses. However, in the example sentence the use of the participle present sounds awkward to me (a girl looking good). I know that instead I can say I met a good-looking boy but is it wrong to use the participle after the noun? Is there a rule or is it just not idiomatic? Thank you for your help! Verfasser toowoomba (989805) 22 Dez. 16, 15. Replace the relative clauses with participles or infinitive. 1. The books which were written by Shakespeare are still famous... 2. I will show you the house which was built hundreds of years ago... 3. The young man who is talking to our teacher looks sneaky... 4. The children who go to school by bus are very patient... 5. Tom, who is waiting for his friends, takes out a paper. The present participle differs in use from the gerund, in that the latter can be used to replace a noun. For example; I really like swimming It's generally better to use the regular relative clause instead of the participle if it's one particular action that is not repeated. The man putting the coffee on the table yesterday . The man who put the coffee on the table. If the subject and.

Reduced Relative Clauses ( Rút gọn mệnh đề quan hệ

Participle clauses are a feature of academic texts. This type of clause is used to provide the same information as other types of clauses, such as relative clauses time clauses and reason clauses, but it does so more economically (less words are used to give the same information).Learning to notice participle clauses will improve your reading skills In the second sentence who witnessed the murder is a relative adjective clause complimenting the object the man. A gerund has nothing to do with relative pronoun. When two verbs are used together in a sentence and since the subject can take one verb, the second verb is often in the gerund form (-ing /present participle form of the verb) or the infinitive Notice that the participle clauses with the present participle have a continuous meaning. If we replaced them with a relative clause it would be in a continuous tense Participle clauses and relative clauses 4.1. -ing PARTICIPLE -ing participle clauses can replace both defining and non-defining relative clauses with an active verb: E.g.: A new road has been built, which bypasses the town. E.g.: A new road has been built, bypassing the town. 4.2. -ed PARTICIPLE When the relative clause contains a passive verb, both the relative pronoun and the auxiliary be. In German, all relative clauses are marked with commas. Alternatively, particularly in formal registers, participles (both active and passive) can be used to embed relative clauses in adjectival phrases: Die von ihm in jenem Stil gemalten Bilder sind sehr begehrt The pictures he painted in that style are highly sought after Die Regierung möchte diese im letzten Jahr eher langsam wachsende.

Test English - Prepare for your English exa

Participle clauses are a kind of adverbial clause in that they give extra information (such as reasons, time, conditions, or results) to the sentence. They are often used in formal writing, and as such, they make a very useful addition to an IELTS essay. What is a Participle Clause? Put simply, a participle clause normally appears at the beginning of a sentence, using the present or past. Past participle (verb-ed) clauses can be used without a subject pronoun and auxiliary in shortened forms of passive relative clauses. The dog hit by the car wasn't hurt. = The dog that was hit by. Relative clauses: defining and non-defining — English Grammar Today — ein Nachschlagewerk für geschriebene und gesprochene englische Grammatik und Sprachgebrauch — Cambridge Dictionar CLAUSES. A) to replace a time clause to show that an action took place while another was already in progress. Page 3/9. File Type PDF Participle Clauses Exercises Combining Clauses with Participle Constructions - English GRAMMAR: PARTICIPLE CLAUSES 2008/09 5 PARTICIPLE CLAUSES: Practice Rewrite the following sentences using participle clauses. 1. Fishermen who seasonally attended to their.

Relative Clause Reduction Rules 1. In defining clauses, we can omit the relative pronoun in the position of object. The boy who / whom / that you don't like much wants to talk to you. The boy you don't like much wants to talk to you. Note: In non-defining sentences you neither omit the relative pronoun nor use that. My mother, who / whom that you met yesterday, wants to talk to you. My. Now, the Relative Clause ' who hid themselves ' can then be replaced by the Participle Clause, 'having hid themselves', transferring all the nuances of meaning, with one important addition: the *' having '* imparts a strong sense of finality and intentionality of the action in sequential preparedness for the following act of 'creeping out' The verb of the relative clause is either gone or changed into a past or present participle (an -ed or -ing verb form). The word or phrase resulting from above is placed before or after the modified noun — the wor Replace the Relative Clause by a Participle Construction (-ing for active and -ed for passive) while keeping the rest of the sentence unchanged. You have two examples: ACTIVE The boy who was waitingin the hall expected a phone call. The boy waitingin the hall expected a phone call. PASSIVE The girl who was picked up by her brotherwas very nice In defining relative clauses, the pronouns who, whom, and which are often replaced by that in spoken English. In non-defining relative clauses, you cannot replace other pronouns with that. You also cannot leave out the relative pronoun in non-defining relative clauses, in the way you sometimes can in defining relative clauses

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